BITalino (r)evolution Manual

  • General Description
  • BLE version
  • MCU
  • EDA
  • EMG
  • LUX
  • ECG
  • ACC
  • LED
biotech components
Out-of-the-box your BITalino has all the components you'll need to start working with physiological data. Over the following sections we will describe the different modules and sensors with connection tips and examples.
  • Sampling Rate: Configurable to 1, 10, 100 or 1000Hz
  • Analog Ports: 4 input (10-bit) + 2 input (6-bit)
  • Digital Ports: 4 input (1-bit) + 4 output (1-bit)
  • Data Link: Class II Bluetooth v2.0 (range up to 10m)
  • Sensors: EMG; ECG; EDA; Accelerometer; Light
  • Actuators: LED
  • Weight: 30g
  • Size: 100x60mm

bitalino manual
Out-of-the-box your BITalino has all the components you'll need to start working with physiological data. Over the following sections we will describe the different modules and sensors with connection tips and examples.
  • Sampling Rate: Configurable to 1, 10, 100 or 1000Hz
  • Analog Ports: 4 input (10-bit) + 2 input (6-bit)
  • Digital Ports: 4 input (1-bit) + 4 output (1-bit)
  • Data Link: Class II Bluetooth v2.0 (range up to 10m)
  • Sensors: EMG; ECG; EDA; Accelerometer; Light
  • Actuators: LED
  • Weight: 30g
  • Size: 100x60mm

The micro-controller unit (MCU) block converts the analogic signals from the sensors to a digital format, and samples all of the channels. The MCU provides access to the BITalino analog and digital channels, as well as to the peripherals.

Figure 1 shows the pinout.
MCU block
Figure 1

EDA sensor

Description

Electrodermal Activity (EDA) can be defined as a transient change in certain electrical properties of the skin, associated with the sweat gland activity and elicited by any stimulus that evokes an arousal or orienting response. The EDA sensor is capable of measuring the skin activity with high sensitivity measurement power in a miniaturized form factor. With low noise signal conditioning and amplification circuitry, we are able to provide accurate sensing capability and detect even the most feeble electrodermal skin response events.

Signal

Figure 4 presents the representation of a typical EDA signal.
eda signal
Figure 4

Technical specifications

  • Principle: Resistive
  • Electrodes: 2
  • Bandwidth: 0-3Hz
  • Range: 0-1Mohm
  • Gain: 2

Applications

Some of the applications of this sensor include detection of changes in the attentive, cognitive and emotional states. EDA sensors were also used for relaxation biofeedback, sympathetic nervous system reaction detection, among many others.

sensor EMG

Description

Muscular activation involves the action of muscles and nerves, which is triggered by very small electrical currents. Measuring the electrical activity in muscles and nerves can be useful for Human-Computer Interaction, control, biofeedback and many other applications. The sensor is capable of performing electromyography (EMG) measurements using bipolar surface electrodes (plus a ground lead), and monitors the muscle activation.

Signal


Figure 3 presents the representation of a typical EMG signal.
emg signal
Figure 3

Technical specifications

  • Principle: Differential voltage
  • Electrodes: 3
  • Bandwidth: 10-400Hz
  • Input Impedance: 100G ohm @ 3pF
  • CMRR: 110dB
  • Range: 0-3,3mV
  • Gain: 1000

Applications

Surface electromyography (sEMG) is a technique which is used in many clinical and biomedical applications, in areas like HCI, neurology, rehabilitation, orthopedics, ergonomics, sports, etc. It is widely used as biofeedback tool to assess muscle fatigue, disorders of motor control and low-back pain is also possible with the EMG sensor. Sensing isometric muscular activity, where no movement is produced, enables a definition of classes of subtle motionless gestures to control interfaces without being noticed and without disrupting the surrounding environment. These signals can be used to control prosthetic devices such as prosthetic hands, arms, and lower limbs or as a control signal for an electronic device such as a mobile phone or PDA, sEMG recordings may also be a suitable control signal for some interactive video games.

lux sensor

Description

A photodiode is a type of photodetector capable of converting light into either current or voltage. In this case the output is given in voltage.

Technical specifications

  • Principle: Photo transistor
  • Range: 360-970nm

Applications

Using a correct light source, this sensor can be used for synchronization of physiological data acquisition with evoked potentials, although it can also be used to measure ambient light, or used in conjunction with a light source to monitor blood volume pulse data.

ecg biosensor

Description

Conduction of action potentials through the heart generates electrical currents that can be picked up by electrodes placed on the skin. A recording of the electrical changes that accompany the heartbeat is called an electrocardiogram (ECG). Variations in the size and duration of the waves of an ECG are useful in diagnosing abnormal cardiac rhythms and conduction patterns. The ECG works mostly by detecting and amplifying the tiny electrical changes on the skin that are caused during the heart muscle cycle during each heart beat.

Signal

Figure 5 presents the representation of a typical ECG signal.
ECG signal
Figure 5

Technical specifications

  • Principle: Differential voltage
  • Electrodes: 2
  • Bandwidth: 0.5-40Hz
  • Input Impedance: 100G ohm @ 3pF
  • CMRR: 110dB
  • Range: 0-3mV
  • Gain: 1100

Applications

The most important applications of ECG sensor focus on wellness of the patient and include heart rate and stress monitoring, biometric verification and life monitoring.

aac sensor

Description

The triaxial accelerometer is based on MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology and has been developed for biomedical applications where kinematic and motion measurements are required. This sensor can measure accelerations relative to free fall and the model available is capable of detecting magnitude and direction of this same acceleration, as a vector quantity. This resulting vector can then be used to sense position, vibration, shock, fall, etc. Attaching the accelerometer to a limb for example, an acceleration can be measured within the dynamic range of the sensor.

Signal

Figure 6 presents the representation of a typical ACC signal.
aac signal
Figure 6

Technical specifications

  • Principle: MEMS
  • Bandwidth: 0-50Hz
  • Range: +/- 3g

Applications

Nowadays accelerometers are widely spread from areas so distinguished as engineering, biology, building monitoring, biomechanics, etc. Even cell phones and gaming consoles have them. Vibration measurements, particularly in research applications and studies of dynamic and biomechanic analysis of motion. Triaxial accelerometer sensors are designed for applications involving continuous or intermittent accelerometry readings in users. Depending on the application it may require an acquisition system with up to 3 available analog ports in order to use the full measurement functionalities. For biaxial and uniaxial applications this same sensor can be used.

led module

Description

The LED module consists in a simple Light-Emitting Diode (LED) that turns on when the input signal is high and turns off when the input signal is low.

Applications

The main application of the LED is related to video synchronization. When associated with the signal threshold it also can be a good visual feedback indicator.

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